Biological molecules are the building blocks of life and play a fundamental role in cellular processes. Enzymes, which are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions in organisms, are also essential for life. In this blog post, we will be discussing the role of biological molecules and enzymes in the human body, as well as how they can be used for medical purposes. We will also explore various types of biological molecules and enzymes, their structure and properties, and methods of isolating them. Finally, we will discuss some common diseases that can be treated with biological molecules and enzymes. Join us as we uncover the fascinating world of biochemistry!
What are Biological Molecules?|Saeed Mdcat|
Biological molecules are the molecules that are present in living organisms. These molecules can be divided into two main categories: macromolecules and small molecules. Macromolecules are large molecules that are essential for the structure and function of cells. They include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Small molecules are smaller molecules that play important roles in metabolism, regulation, and other cellular processes. They include ions, vitamins, hormones, and second messengers.
Enzymes are large biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in the cells of all living organisms. Enzymes are proteins, and they are essential to the proper functioning of all cellular processes. Enzymes can be found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria of cells.
The word “enzyme” comes from the Greek word meaning “in yeast.” Enzymes were first discovered in brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which is used to make beer and bread. In 1878, German chemist Karl Wilhelm Gottfried Schröder isolated the first enzyme, which he called zymase.
Enzymes are classified into six different categories: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions; transferases catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another; hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds; lyases catalyze the cleavage of bonds by means other than hydrolysis; isomerases catalyze the interconversion of isomers; and ligases catalyze the formation of new covalent bonds.
Enzymes are highly specific; that is, each enzyme usually catalyzes only one type of reaction. The specificity of an enzyme is determined by its active site, which is a small region on the enzyme’s surface that binds to
Carbohydrates are one of the three main types of biomolecules (along with lipids and proteins), and are essential for life. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio (e.g., glucose has the formula C6H12O6). Carbohydrates can be divided into two groups: simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and complex carbohydrates (oligosaccharides and polysaccharides).
Monosaccharides are the simplest type of carbohydrate, and include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded together, and include sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (galactose + glucose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
Oligosaccharides are short chains of 3-10 monosaccharides bonded together. Polysaccharides are long chains of 10 or more monosaccharides bonded together. Some common polysaccharides include starch (found in plants), glycogen (stored carbohydrate in animals), cellulose (a structural component of plant cell walls), and chitin (a structural component of fungi cell walls).
Proteins are one of the three main macromolecules that make up living things (the other two being carbohydrates and lipids). Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are organic molecules composed of a nitrogen-containing side chain (R group) and a central carbon atom bonded to an amino group (-NH3) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). There are 20 different amino acids that can be used to make proteins, and the sequence of these amino acids determines the structure and function of the protein. Proteins can be divided into four main categories: enzymes, structural proteins, storage proteins, and hormones. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, while structural proteins provide support and shape to cells and tissues. Storage proteins, such as casein in milk, store nutrients for later use. Hormones are protein molecules that regulate various processes in the body by binding to specific receptors on target cells.
Lipids are a class of biological molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, and certain vitamins. Lipids are insoluble in water and are generally hydrophobic (not attracted to water). Lipids play important roles in the structure and function of cell membranes, as well as in energy storage.
Lipids are made up of two main types of molecules: fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are long chain carboxylic acids with a hydrocarbon tail. The hydrocarbon tails can be saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds). Saturated fats are solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats are liquid. Glycerol is a three-carbon molecule that has hydroxyl groups on each carbon atom.
Fatty acids and glycerol can combine to form triglycerides, which are the main component of body fat. Triglycerides consist of one glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains attached. Phospholipids are another type of lipid that consists of two fatty acid chains attached to a phosphate group. Phospholipids make up the majority of cell membranes.
Lipids play important roles in many biological processes. For example, lipids help to store energy in the form of triglycerides. Lipids also help to insulate the body and protect organs from damage. In addition, some lipids (eicosanoids) act as signaling molecules